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References – Antibiotic stewardship

Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes in health-care facilities
in low and middle-income countries
a WHO practical toolkit

(WHO, 2019)

The Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs: 2019

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC)

Antimicrobial stewardship

(Mayo Clinic proceedings, 2011)

Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is increasing; however, antimicrobial drug development is slowing. Now more than ever before, antimicrobial stewardship is of the utmost importance as a way to optimize the use of antimicrobials to prevent the development of resistance and improve patient outcomes. This review describes the why, what, who, how, when, and where of antimicrobial stewardship. Techniques of stewardship are summarized, and a plan for implementation of a stewardship program is outlined.

An integrated stewardship model: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

(Future Microbiol, 2016)

Abstract: Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship model comprising three intertwined programs: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship, involving all stakeholders. The focus is a so-called ‘theragnostics’ approach. This leads to a personalized infection management plan, improving patient care and minimizing resistance development. Furthermore, it is important that healthcare regions nationally and internationally work together, ensuring that the patient (and microorganism) transfers will not cause problems in a neighbouring institution. This antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship model can serve as a blueprint to implement innovative, integrative infection management.

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