Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health concern worldwide. The OECD has developed a micro-simulations model to produce comparable cross-country estimates of the health and economic impact of AMR, for a comprehensive set of infections susceptible to develop resistance. Individual analyses were performed for 33 OECD and European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) member countries. The model estimates for the included countries show that the current burden of AMR is substantial but, at this point, still limited in comparison to the impact of other conditions. This chapter provides an overview of current economic studies on AMR, describes the findings of the main analyses, along with the major knowledge gaps in the current economic literature on AMR. The characteristics and results of the OECD AMR microsimulation model are then presented, followed by the results of a second analysis conducted by the OECD, focusing specifically on the potential health burden of AMR in the context of antimicrobial prophylaxis treatments. The final section of this chapter summarises the main findings and discusses their policy implications.