References – Rapid tests / Point of Care testing
Modern Tools for Rapid Diagnostics of Antimicrobial Resistance
(Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 2020)
Abstract: Fast, robust, and affordable antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is required, as roughly 50% of antibiotic treatments are started with wrong antibiotics and without a proper diagnosis of the pathogen. Validated growth-based AST according to EUCAST or CLSI (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute) recommendations is currently suggested to guide the antimicrobial therapy. Any new AST should be validated against these standard methods. Many rapid diagnostic techniques can already provide pathogen identification. Some of them can additionally detect the presence of resistance genes or resistance proteins, but usually isolated pure cultures are needed for AST. We discuss the value of the technologies applying nucleic acid amplification, whole genome sequencing, and hybridization as well as immunodiagnostic and mass spectrometry-based methods and biosensor-based AST. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of integrated systems applying microfluidics to integrate cultivation, lysis, purification, and signal reading steps. We discuss technologies and commercial products with potential for Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) and their capability to analyze polymicrobial samples without pre-purification steps. The purpose of this critical review is to present the needs and drivers for AST development, to show the benefits and limitations of AST methods, to introduce promising new POCT-compatible technologies, and to discuss AST technologies that are likely to thrive in the future.
Rapid microbiological tests for bloodstream infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: therapeutic implications
(Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2019)
Background: Treating severe infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) is one of the most important challenges for clinicians worldwide, partly because resistance may remain unrecognized until identification of the causative agent and/or antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Recently, some novel rapid test for identification and/or AST of MDR-GNB from positive blood cultures or the blood of patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) have become available.
Objectives: The objective of this narrative review is to discuss the advantages and limitations of different rapid tests for identification and/or AST of MDR-GNB from positive blood cultures or the blood of patients with BSI, as well as the available evidence on their possible role to improve therapeutic decisions and antimicrobial stewardship.
Sources: Inductive PubMed search for publications relevant to the topic.
Content: The present review is structured in the following way: (a) rapid tests on positive blood cultures; (b) rapid tests directly on whole blood; (c) therapeutic implications.
Implications: Novel molecular and phenotypic rapid tests for identification and AST show the potential for favourably influencing patients’ outcomes and results of antimicrobial stewardship interventions by reducing both the time to effective treatment and the misuse of antibiotics, although the interpretation about their impact on actual therapeutic decisions and patients’ outcomes is still complex. Factors such as feasibility and personnel availability, as well as the detailed knowledge of the local microbiological epidemiology, need to be considered very carefully when implementing novel rapid tests in laboratory workflows and algorithms. Providing high-level, comparable evidence on the clinical impact of rapid identification and AST is becoming of paramount importance for MDR-GNB infections, since in the near future rapid identification of specific resistance mechanisms could be crucial for guiding rapid, effective, and targeted therapy against specific resistance mechanisms.
Rapid diagnostics for bloodstream infections: A primer for infection preventionists
(American Journal of Infection Control, 2018)
The Cost-Effectiveness of Rapid Diagnostic Testing for the Diagnosis of Bloodstream Infections with or without Antimicrobial Stewardship
(Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 2018)
Rapid pathogen-specific phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing using digital LAMP quantification in clinical samples
(Science translational medicine, 2017)
Existing and Emerging Technologies for Point-of-Care Testing
(The Clinical biochemist, 2014)
Economic Evidence and Point-of-Care Testing
(The Clinical biochemist. Reviews, 2013)
The evidence base for the effectiveness of diagnostic services is well known to be limited, and one consequence of this has been a very limited literature on cost effectiveness. One reason for this situation is undoubtedly the reimbursement strategies employed in laboratory medicine for many years, simplistically based on the complexity of the test procedure, and the delivery as a cost-per-test service. This has proved a disincentive to generate the required evidence, and little effort to generate an integrated investment and disinvestment business case, associated with care pathway changes.
Point-of-care testing creates a particularly challenging scenario because, on the one hand, the unit cost-per-test is larger through the loss of the economy of scale offered by automation, whilst it offers the potential of substantial savings through enabling rapid delivery of results, and reduction of facility costs. This is important when many health systems are planning for complete system redesign. We review the literature on economic assessment of point-of-care testing in the context of these developments.
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